BLACKHEATH

TIMELINE OF KEY EVENTS

(STILL IN PROGRESS AND BEING RESEARCHED)

10,000 BC

With the Ice Age finally over, the Mesolithic Period (or Middle Stone Age) begins and Britain experiences a flourish of forests.

 

These environmental changes brought new settlements, livestock, and farming systems. Our ancestors' clearance of woodland for settlements was  thought to have been by a ‘slash and burn process.’ There is some speculation that Blackheath and Greenwich was once a forest destroyed by the fires of  Anderida (Wealden, Kent) which cleared the way for settlements

 

More on this can be found here.

Eric A R Ennion (1900-1981) Archaeologic

1st to 4th Centuries

Roman Occupation

 

During these centuries, Britain was occupied by the Romans. Artefacts have been found at Dartmouth Row and Greenwich Park.

More on this can be found here.

The Anglo-Saxons Arrive

 

When the Romans left Britain, the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes invaded. We know the Anglo- Saxons (as they became known), settled in and around Blackheath, and from them, we eventually (but not yet) get our name.

More on this can be found here.

5th and 6th Centuries 

871-899

Alfred the Great

 

Alfred inherits Greenwich from his father Ethulwulf and gives it to his daughter Ælfthryth (Elstrudis) on her marriage to Baldwin II, Count of Flanders.

 

The lands are known as Lieuesham, Grenevic, and Uulwich. Although not named, these included Blackheath.

 

Alfred's great grandfather was Ealhmund, King of Kent.

918

The Abbey of St. Peter, Ghent

 

Baldwin dies and in his memory, Ælfthryth, gives Lieuesham, Grenevic, and Uulwich to the Abbey of St. Peter, in Ghent, Belgium.

1011–1014

The Danes & Norsemen

 

Danish fleets sailed up the Thames into Greenwich several times and the Danes moved inland, ransacking local villages like Blackheath (still not named as such yet). 

The Danes had a camp in Greenwich and in 1012, they took Alphege, the Archbishop of Canterbury, hostage. They hoped for a ransom would but Alphege had left instructions that if he were taken prisoner, no ransom should be paid. In 1012 he was murdered at Greenwich and there is speculation that his murder took place on the site of St Alphege – built on the site of his martyrdom.

Landing of the Romans on the Coast of Ke
Saxon Burial Pits Greenwich and Blackhea
Alfred The Great's Will
Elstrudis of Wessex
Viking Ship Greenwich and Blackheath

1086

Domesday

 

Blackheath is still not officially named yet and in the Domesday Book, the area falls under the Hundred of Greneviz. Elders of the Hundred (an administrative division) may potentially have met at the Mount (now called Whitfield's Mount), although this may just be historical speculation as they often met on open spaces.

1166

Officially Recorded

Blackheath is officially (and finally) mentioned as Blachehedfeld in the Pipe Rolls (annual financial records).

There is more about Blackheath's name, here.

Domesday Book Greenwich.png

1301

Murder Most Horrid

The groom to the Earl of Gloucester was murdered at a 'stone cross' in Blakehatfeuld.

1415

All Hail Henry V

 

King Henry V returns from Agincourt victorious from one of his greatest battles and is welcomed by the citizens of Blackheath.

"And when the desired day of Saturday dawned, the citizens went out to meet the king at the brow of Blackheath, i.e. the mayor and 24 aldermen in scarlet, and the rest of the lesser citizens in red cloaks with red and white party-coloured hoods, to the number of about 20,000 horsemen…. And when the king came through the midst of them about ten o’clock, and the citizens had given glory and honour to God, and congratulations to the king…the citizens rode before him towards the city, and the king followed…."

Shakespeare wrote (in his Shakespearean way) that King Henry ignored all the pomp and ceremony but Shakespeare loved a bit (lot) of liberal and dramatic borrowing from both historical sources.

Blackheath Pipe Rolls 1166

1227

1275

Finally!

 

Blackheath is mentioned in the Hundreds of Kent Rolls as the Hundredum de Blakeheth(e).

Assize Rolls
Plea to the Crown Blackheath

More Ghent Connections

 

Grant by Ranulph to Sir John the Abbot, and the Convent of St. Peter's, Ghent, for rent from the land adjoining the heath called 'la Blakehethe,' and lying on the boundary of the high road from London to Dartford.

1349-1350

It's Just a Rumour – The Black Death

 

The Black Death, or Bubonic Plague, swept across the world killing millions.

 

Rumour has it that Blackheath was a purposely selected burial ground for plague victims but there's no evidence for this. That's not to say burials didn't happen on the Heath during these years – cemeteries across Britain were feeling the strain – but it wasn't an actual plague pit, and it's certainly not where its name comes from. 

The Black Death 1349-1350
Medieval Charter by Edward I

1381

The Peasants' Revolt, led by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw.

Rebels from the south of the Thames, mainly from Kent, attacked Rochester Castle and Canterbury before setting off for Blackheath and camping out for the night. The revolt was triggered by years of social, political, and economic unrest, especially after the Black Death. Wat Tyler was killed during the fighting, and Jack Straw was executed without trial.

 

In 1385 there was a"Petition to the king and council from the commons in parliament requesting the posthumous conviction as rebels and felons of certain persons executed without due process of law during the 1381 revolt, such as Wat Tyler, Jack Straw, John Hanchach and Robert Phippe, since their heirs are claiming their lands and tenements."

John Ball, often considered to be the 'mad priest of Kent' by his enemies, gave a sermon on the Heath to the rebels. He was later taken prisoner, put on trial, found guilty, and suffered the vile death of being hung, drawn and quartered in St Albans while Richard II looked on. Ball's head was displayed on a spike on London Bridge. In 1953, John Ball Primary School in Blackheath was opened. 

Wat Tyler Blackheath – Peasants Revolt.png
Agincourt Chronicles - Henry V Blackheath

1450

Jack Cade in Blake Heeth

Jack Cade and his followers camped out on the Heath during their revolt against Henry VI, the debt the Hundred Years War had caused, and generally inadequate living conditions. Over 2,000 rebels camped out before presenting the Blackheath Petition (or ‘The Complaint of the Poor Commons of Kent’).

 

 

Jack Cade's Rebellion Blackheath
Jack Cade London Blackheath

1452 – 1497

Location, Location, Location – A Right Royal Carry On

Because of its location – an entry point into London from the Roman Road – and its wide-open space, Blackheath became quite the meeting place for royal activities. 

In 1452, Henry VI pitched his tent on the Heath when he went up against his cousin, the Duke of York (father of Edward IV), who openly claimed the crown. 

In 1471, Thomas Fauconberg (excuse out language but he was known as the Bastard of Fauconberg) camped on the Heath with his army when fighting for his king, Henry VI, against Edward (later Edward IV).

In 1474, Edward IV was welcomed home on the Heath after returning from France with a signed treaty from Louis XI. He is backed by an army of over 30,000 men.

Chronicles of Fabian _ Duke of York Blackheath
Thomas Neville's Siege of London | Blackheath.png

1497

The Battle of Blackheath / The Cornish Rebellion

 

In June 1497, a Cornish army rebelling against King Henry VII's taxes was demanding of them to pay for his Scottish wars arrived in Blackheath. They camped on the open space – an army of around 9,000-10,000 men.

Henry moved against the Cornish at dawn on Saturday 17 June 1497. The Cornish, lacking cavalry and artillery, placed archers at the bridge at Deptford Strand, with the rest of the army near the top of the hill on Blackheath. As a result, the Cornish army was pretty much slaughtered. 

 

Estimates of the Cornish dead range from 200 to 2000. 

 

The leaders were all captured and suffered a traitor's death. As punishment, Crown agents extracted severe monetary penalties against the county, causing some parts to be impoverished for many years.

 

There is a commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank (the leaders) mounted on the south entrance to Greenwich Park. This was to mark the 500th anniversary of the battle.

Battle of Blackheath Plaque Greenwich Park
Battle of Blackheath Pardon Document.jpg
John Ball Peasants' Revolt Blackheath Wat Tyler

1540

Henry VIII pitches tents on the east side of the heath to mark his first meeting of yet another wife, Anne of Cleves.

Being Henry, it wasn't just any old tents; it was a 'pavilion,' of tents made from rich cloths of gold, scented with perfumes and warmed by fires. Henry then had all the bushes cut down to create a path from the tents to the park gates so he could lead a procession to the Palace of Placentia.

Such a show of grandeur (similar to that of the Field of the Cloth of Gold when Henry met Francis I of France – a showy affair where the two kings tried to outdo each other with lavish tents of epicness) sealed the deal of marriage between Henry and Anne but not for very long! At least Anne's head didn't suffer the same fate as the Blackheath bushes. 

Henry VIII Meeting Anne of Cleves in Blackheath.png
Henry VIII Meeting Anne of Cleves in Blackheath.png

1585

London Showing Off

In 1585, over 5,000 London City Militia camped out on the heath to display their strength and loyalty to Elizabeth I, who was residing at the Palace.

They did this because England was verging on war with Spain. 

 

There were many reasons why the Spanish Armada sailed from Spain in 1588 and why England and Spain didn't like each other. But just one of these reasons is the English pirates kept pilfering and looting the Spanish ships and ports. It's obviously more complicated than robbing pirates – religion, politics, corruption, and power greedy monarchs have been said to play a part! 

Blackheath Queen Elizabeth I Rallying Troops.png

1619-1624

James I decided to improve Greenwich Park so replaced the fencing around its perimeter with a more imposing 12-foot high brick wall.

Greenwich Park \ History of Blackheath

1629

Fancy a Pint?

Situated at the top of Blackheath Hill, the Green Man Hotel was the first recorded pub in Blackheath. It once stood on the site of Allison Close. The pub lasted quite some time before it was ripped down in 1970. Over the course of its life, it was rebuilt three times.

 

Being on one of the main routes into Londo, the pub was used for all sorts of interesting things. Rumour has it pagan ceremonies were undertaken in the caves beneath it. But more credible activities include a post office, a meeting place for traders and highwaymen, and even a local for some of the dukes. The pub once had a boxing area and was a cool place to hang out and listen to live jazz in the 1950s and 60s.​

Green Man Pub Blackheath.png
Green Man Pub Blackheath

More being researched and confirmed – coming soon

Sources Used

  1. Dr Nicola R. Bannister, The cultural heritage of woodlands in the South East, October 2007,  Edited by Patrick McKernan, Forestry Commission 

  2. Duncan, Leland L. History of the Borough of Lewisham; with Supplement, Odds and Ends of Lewisham History. London: Lewisham Borough Council, 1963. Print. P20

  3. Simon Dunelm in Decem Scriptores, p. 170, 171; and Roger Hoveden in Scriptores post Bedam. p. 432, 433.

  4. Carroll, Jayne, Carroll, J., Reynolds, Andrew, Reynolds, A., Yorke, Barbara, and Yorke, B. Power and Place in Europe in the Early Middle Ages. British Academy, 2019. Web. 

  5. Petition to the king and council from the commons in parliament requesting the posthumous conviction as rebels and felons of certain persons executed without due process of law during the 1381 revolt, such as Wat Tyler, Jack Straw, John Hanchach and Robert Phippe, since their heirs are claiming their lands and tenements. (http://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:6378/AnaServer?PROME+0+start.anv+id=RICHARDII)

  6. The Gesta Henrici Quinti (Latin for The Deeds of Henry the Fifth) is a medieval chronicle written by an anonymous author

  7. Kingsford, Charles Lethbridge. Chronicles of London. Cambridge, 2015. Cambridge Library Collection. Web.

  8. Fabyan, Robert, Henry Ellis, George Woodfall, Joseph Mawman, and Thomas Payne. The New Chronicles of England and France: In Two Parts. London:: Printed for F. C. & J. Rivington; T. Payne; Wilkie and Robinson; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and; Cadell and Davies; J. Mawman; and J. Johnson, 1811. Print.

  9. Ingram, Mike. “The Dark Side of Blackheath: England’s Forgotten Battles.” Medieval Warfare, vol. 3, no. 1, 2013, pp. 41–46. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/48579020.

  10. Hume, Martin A. S. Chronicle of Henry VIII of England: Being a Contemporary Record of Some of the Principal Events of the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI. London: Bell, 1889

  11. Lambarde, William. A Perambulation of Kent [electronic Resource] : Conteining the Description, Hystorie, and Customes of That Shyre. London: By Edm. Bollifant, 1596.

  12. https://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/greenwich-park/about-greenwich-park/greenwich-park-story

  13. Blackheath Conservation Area character appraisal and supplementary planning document, March 2007